Part I of The Musician’s Way presents six chapters that outfit musicians to practice creatively and efficiently. The links, tips, and techniques below supplement those chapters.
Portable Digital Recorders for Musicians
Zoom H6. 6-track recorder with 24 bit, 96K capability. Pro-quality device.
Zoom H4n. Outstanding sound quality & features. Huge discount at Amazon.
Zoom H2n. Great for self-study recording. Price reduction at Amazon.
Tascam DR-07 MKII. A less-expensive option for self-study recording.
Audacity. Free open-source software for audio recording and editing.
AVS Audio & Video Editing Software. Powerful and easy to use.
HD camcorders at Amazon - great selection, lowest prices.
Scores and Sheet Music
Internet Music Score Library Project. A vast repository of 200K+ free scores.
Sheet Music Plus. Extensive selection; lowest prices.
The 4 Types of Music Editions by Gerald Klickstein
Free downloadable scores from the Sibley Music Library at the Eastman School.
Free online scores & Special collections from the Indiana Univ. Music Library. Staatsbibliothek Berlin. Scores, autograph manuscripts, and much more.
Bavarian State Library Digital Collections. Free downloads: the complete works of Schumann, Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Liszt, Handel, and more.
Beethoven Haus - Digital Archive.
Brahms Digital. Autograph manuscripts, early editions, and more.
Neue Mozart Ausgabe free digital version. The complete Mozart by Bärenreiter.
Schubert Autographs. Free online viewing of Schubert's manuscripts.
WorldCat.org. Find scores, books, and recordings in libraries worldwide.
Juilliard Manuscript Collection. 140 documents for online viewing.
Sheet music collections. Links compiled by the Duke University Music Library.
American Sheet Music, 1820-1885. From the Library of Congress. 110,000 scores. African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920. Approximately 1,300 titles.
Yiddish Sheet Music. From the collection at Brown University.
Music Practice, Theory, and History Resources and References
Articles about Deep Practice on The Musician's Way Blog.
Theta Music Trainer. Outstanding free ear training & music theory games. Mobile app coming soon!
Multimedia Music Dictionary from Virginia Tech.
Boss Dr. Beat DB-60 metronome. Excellent programmable metronome.
Boss DB-90. Superior features.
"Rythmic Precision." How to use metronomes effectively, by Gerald Klickstein.
Metronome Apps. A selected list from BulletproofMusician.com. BestMetronome.com. Free online metronome. Customizable beat rates.
Stylistic Timeline of Music History, by Steven Estrella.
SoundReasoning.org. Free music appreciation course by Anthony Brandt, Ph.D.
Online Books Page. Free texts.
TheLessonRoom.com. Videos, tips, and techniques for students and educators.
Classical.net. Articles, reviews, and other resources for classical musicians.
Staffnotes: Free Printable Staff Paper. Simple online tool; flexible formatting.
Practice Perfect: 42 Rules for Getting Better at Getting Better, by Lemov, Woolway & Yezzi (Jossey-Bass, 2012). Strategies largely geared to educators.
“Practice,” by Nancy H. Barry and Susan Hallam, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, edited by Parncutt & McPherson, 151-166 (Oxford, 2002).
“Strategies for Individual Practice,” by Harald Jørgensen, 85-103; Mental Skills Training," by Connolly and Williamon, 221-246, in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance, ed. Aaron Williamon, (Oxford, 2004).
For improvisation resources, see Jazz.
Listening to Music
Deep Listening. An article on The Musician's Way Blog.
Jango.com. Listen for free; sign up and get your recordings heard by millions.
Classical Archives. Over 600,000 audio tracks; free and subscription offerings.
ClassicalConnect.com. Free and growing.
ClassicFM.com. Music, news, and more.
PristineClassical.com. Historic recordings remastered by Andrew Rose.
Recordings from Naxos (classical and jazz).
Warm-Ups and Restorative Movements for Musicians
The Total Warm-up. Crucial strategies, via The Musician's Way Blog.
A Proper Warm-up Has Important Benefits, by physiologist Elizabeth Quinn.
Pre-playing warm-ups. Factsheet published by the British Association of Performing Arts Medicine. Please read the above article by Elizabeth Quinn and study the factsheet instructions before you try out these movements.
David Russell speaks about warming up, practicing, maintaining a repertoire of accessible pieces, and preserving the fun in music making. (Video)
“Qi Gong [Tai Chi] Exercises for Musicians.” Free video by Scott Lee.
PracticeSightReading.com. Generate rhythm exercises; multiple levels.
Eye Movement in Music Reading. A well-referenced article on Wikipedia.
“Sight-Reading,” by Lehmann & McArthur, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, eds. Parncutt & McPherson, 135-150 (Oxford, 2002).
“Strategies for Sight-reading and Improvising Music,” in Musical Excellence, edited by Aaron Williamon, 143-159 (Oxford, 2004).
Sight-reading/sight singing methods for instrumentalists and singers:
Solfèges des Solfèges, by A. Dannhäuser (3 vols.). Free download.
A New Approach to Sight Singing, by Berkowitz, Frontrier, & Kraft.
Rhythmical Articulation, by Pasquale Bona.
See p. 23-34 of The Musician's Way.
7 Essentials of Artistic Interpretation, by Gerald Klickstein
Videos: Search YouTube for videos of master musicians teaching interpretation. Use keywords such as "Pavarotti masterclass" or "violin master class."
Books about Musical Interpretation
Note Grouping, by James Thurmond (Meredith, 1982).
Musical Interpretation, by Tobias Matthay (Schirmer, 1918). Free e-book.
The Rhythmic Structure of Music, by Cooper & Meyer (Chicago, 1960).
The Composer’s Advocate, by Erich Leinsdorf (Yale, 1982).
Baroque Music: Style & Performance Handbook, by R. Donington (Norton 1982).
Interpreting Bach at the Keyboard, by P. Badura-Skoda (Oxford, 1995).
The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the 21st Century, by Bruce Haynes (Oxford, 2007).
Singing in Style, by Martha Elliott (Yale, 2006).
Memorization for Musicians
See p. 82-93 of The Musician's Way.
The Four Stages of Memorization. Powerful strategies, by Gerald Klickstein.
Memorization: Psychological Data and Some Practical Tips, by Scott M. Smith.
“Memorising Music,” by Aaron Williamon, in Musical Performance: A Guide to Understanding, edited by John Rink, 113-126 (Cambridge, 2002).
“Memory,” by Aiello and Williamon, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, eds. Parncutt & McPherson, 167-181 (Oxford, 2002).
“Performing from Memory,” by Chaffin, Logan, & Begosh, in The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, eds. Hallam, Cross, & Thaut (2008, p. 352-363).
“The Value of Performing from Memory,” by Aaron Williamon, Psychology of Music, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 84-95 (1999). Abstract of important research article.
“Strategies for Memorizing Music,” by Jane Ginsborg, in Musical Excellence,
ed. Aaron Williamon, 123-141 (Oxford, 2004).
"Liszt: The Man Who Invented Stage Fright," by Steven Hough, The Guardian, (June 2011). Pros and cons of performing with or without a score.
Preview Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance, by Chaffin, Imreh, and Crawford (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002). Purchase from Amazon.com.
Read the Preface to Guide to Memorizing Music, by Alfred J. Goodrich (1906).
See p. 114-129 of The Musician's Way.
"how to play in someone else's band," by Danny Barnes. Sage advice!
"A Musician's Guide to Middle Management, or Leading a Band," by Cameron Mizell. Broadly applicable strategies and techniques.
"The Secrets of Successful Collaboration," by Keppie Coutts. Insights into collective songwriting; broadly applicable.
"Two Is the Magic Number." The creative power of collaboration (Slate, 2010).
“The Role of Chamber Music in Learning to Perform: A Case Study,” scholarly article by Burt-Perkins & Mills, in Music Performance Research, Vol. 2 (2008).
“Strategies for Ensemble Practice,” a chapter by Jane Davidson and Elaine King, in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance, edited by Aaron Williamon, 105-122 (Oxford, 2004).
“Collaboration and the Study of Ensemble Rehearsal.” A paper by Elaine C. King published in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (2004).
The Chamber Music Network. Facilitates informal playing. 5000+ members!
The Art of Quartet Playing: The Guarneri Quartet in Conversation with David Blum (Cornell, 1987).