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Part I of The Musician’s Way presents six chapters that outfit musicians to practice creatively and efficiently. The links, tips, and techniques below supplement those chapters.

Digital recorders | Scores & sheet music| General references & resources | Listening | Warm-ups | Sight-reading | Interpretation | Memorization | Collaboration | Blog | Downloads


Portable Digital Recorders for Musicians

Audio recorders
Zoom H6.New! 6-track recorder with 24 bit, 96K capability. Extraordinary!

Zoom H4n. Superb sound quality & features. On sale at Amazon! Read reviews.

Zoom H2n. Great for self-study recording. Price reduction at Amazon.

Tascam DR-07 MKII. A less-expensive option for self-study recording.

Rode iXY Mic for iPhone/iPad. Excellent reviews; 50% off at Amazon.

Self-Recording in Practice. 5 Benefits of Self-Recording. By Gerald Klickstein.

AVS Audio & Video Editing Software. Powerful and easy to use.

Audacity. Free open-source software for audio recording and editing.

Video recorders
HD camcorders at Amazon - great selection & low prices!

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Scores and Sheet Music

Also see Instrument-Specific Resources and For Singers.

Internet Music Score Library Project. A vast repository of 200K+ free scores.

Sheet Music Plus. Extensive selection; lowest prices.

The 4 Types of Music Editions by Gerald Klickstein. Avoid faulty editions!

Free downloadable scores from the Sibley Music Library at the Eastman School.
Free online scores & Special collections from the Indiana Univ. Music Library. Staatsbibliothek Berlin. Scores, autograph manuscripts, and much more.

Bavarian State Library Digital Collections. Free downloads: the complete works of Schumann, Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Liszt, Handel, and more.
British Library Digital Scores. Excellent source for early music.

Index of Digital Collections. Links compiled by the Virtual Library of Musicology.
Sheet Music Consortium. Free downloads from multiple library collections.

Bach Digital.
Beethoven Haus - Digital Archive.
Brahms Digital. Autograph manuscripts, early editions, and more.

Neue Mozart Ausgabe free digital version. The complete Mozart by Bärenreiter.
Schubert Autographs. Free online viewing of Schubert's manuscripts.

The Danish National Digital Sheet Music Archive.
The Düben Collection. 17th & early 18th music from the Univ. of Uppsala.
Web Library of 17th Century Music.

MusOpen.com. Free sheet music. Search by composer, period, instrument.
Mutopia Project. Free public-domain classical music typeset by volunteers.
Kreusch-Sheet-Music.net. Free sheet music.

WorldCat.org. Find scores, books, and recordings in libraries worldwide.

Juilliard Manuscript Collection. 140 documents for online viewing.

Sheet music collections. Links compiled by the Duke University Music Library.
American Sheet Music, 1820-1885. From the Library of Congress. 110,000 scores. African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920. Approximately 1,300 titles.
Yiddish Sheet Music. From the collection at Brown University.

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Music Practice, Theory, and History Resources and References

Articles about Deep Practice on The Musician's Way Blog.

Theta Music Trainer. Outstanding free ear training & music theory games. Mobile app coming soon!

MusicTheory.net. Teoría.com. Practice music theory and ear training.

Theory worksheets. Print out and practice intervals, triads, and more.
MusicCards.net. Music theory flash cards.

Good-ear.com. Free online ear trainer.
Dictation exercises
from davesmey.com.

Boss Dr. Beat DB-60 metronome. Excellent programmable metronome.
Boss DB-90
. Superior features.

"Rythmic Precision." How to use metronomes effectively, by Gerald Klickstein.
Metronome Apps. A selected list from BulletproofMusician.com. BestMetronome.com. Free online metronome. Customizable beat rates.

Stylistic Timeline of Music History, by Steven Estrella.
SoundReasoning.org. Free music appreciation course by Anthony Brandt, Ph.D.

Multimedia Music Dictionary from Virginia Tech.

Internet Resources for Music from the Library of Congress.
Online Resources for Music Scholars compiled by Harvard librarians.

Online Books Page. Links to free public domain texts.

TheLessonRoom.com. Videos, tips, and techniques for students and educators.
Classical.net. Articles, reviews, and other resources for classical musicians.

Staffnotes: Free Printable Staff Paper. Simple online tool; flexible formatting.

The Musician’s Way, by Gerald Klickstein (Oxford, 2009). 9th printing, 2014. The most complete book ever published for aspiring musicians. Read reviews.

Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, by Brown, Roediger, McDaniel (Belknap 2014).

Practice Perfect: 42 Rules for Getting Better at Getting Better, by Lemov, Woolway & Yezzi (Jossey-Bass, 2012). Strategies largely geared to educators.

"It's Not How Much; It's How." By Robert A. Duke. Research pinpointing effective practice strategies. (JRME, 56/4, Jan. 2009)

“Practice,” by Nancy H. Barry and Susan Hallam, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, edited by Parncutt & McPherson, 151-166 (Oxford, 2002).

“Strategies for Individual Practice,” by Harald Jørgensen, 85-103; Mental Skills Training," by Connolly and Williamon, 221-246, in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance, ed. Aaron Williamon, (Oxford, 2004).

For improvisation resources, see Jazz.

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Listening to Music

Deep Listening. An article on The Musician's Way Blog.

YouTube.com. Search by performer, composer, title.

Amazon Prime. Unlimited streaming of both music and video. Free trial.

emusic - $10 Music Download Credit
ArkivMusic.com. "The source for classical music."

Pandora Internet Radio.
Spotify - free & subscription offerings.

Jango.com. Listen for free; sign up and get your recordings heard by millions.

Classical Archives. Over 600,000 audio tracks; free and subscription offerings.
ClassicalConnect.com. Free and growing.
ClassicFM.com. Music, news, and more.

Digital Concert Hall, via the Berlin Philharmonic.
Medici.tv. Free and subscription access to HD classical music videos.

PristineClassical.com. Historic recordings remastered by Andrew Rose.

Recordings from Naxos (classical and jazz).
Blue Note records. Jazz recordings and news. Also see Jazz Resources.

World music:
World Music, 3rd Edition -
companion website.
Smithsonian Folkways.

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Warm-Ups and Restorative Movements for Musicians

See The Musician's Way p. 37-39, 75-82 and the For Singers page.

The Total Warm-up. Crucial strategies, via The Musician's Way Blog.

A Proper Warm-up Has Important Benefits, by physiologist Elizabeth Quinn.

Pre-playing warm-ups. Factsheet published by the British Association of Performing Arts Medicine. Please read the above article by Elizabeth Quinn and study the factsheet instructions before you try out these movements.

Relax and Renew, by Judith Lasater, Ph.D. Restorative poses (Rodmell, 1995).
The Breathing Book, by Donna Farhi. (MacMillan, 1996).

David Russell speaks about warming up, practicing, maintaining a repertoire of accessible pieces, and preserving the fun in music making. (Video)

Qi Gong [Tai Chi] Exercises for Musicians.” Free video by Scott Lee.

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Sight-Reading

"Effortless Sight-Reading." A popular article on The Musician's Way Blog.
Also see p. 99-102 of The Musician's Way.

PracticeSightReading.com. Generate rhythm exercises; multiple levels.

Eye Movement in Music Reading. A well-referenced article on Wikipedia.

“Sight-Reading,” by Lehmann & McArthur, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, eds. Parncutt & McPherson, 135-150 (Oxford, 2002).

“Strategies for Sight-reading and Improvising Music,” in Musical Excellence, edited by Aaron Williamon, 143-159 (Oxford, 2004).

Sight-reading/sight singing methods for instrumentalists and singers:
Solfèges des Solfèges, by A. Dannhäuser (3 vols.). Free download.
A New Approach to Sight Singing, by Berkowitz, Frontrier, & Kraft.
Rhythmical Articulation, by Pasquale Bona.

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Musical Interpretation

See p. 23-34 of The Musician's Way.

7 Essentials of Artistic Interpretation, by Gerald Klickstein

Videos: Search YouTube for videos of master musicians teaching interpretation. Use keywords such as "Pavarotti masterclass" or "violin master class."

Books about Musical Interpretation
Note Grouping, by James Thurmond (Meredith, 1982).

Musical Interpretation, by Tobias Matthay (Schirmer, 1918). Free e-book.

The Rhythmic Structure of Music, by Cooper & Meyer (Chicago, 1960).
The Composer’s Advocate, by Erich Leinsdorf (Yale, 1982).

Baroque Music: Style & Performance Handbook, by R. Donington (Norton 1982).
Interpreting Bach at the Keyboard, by P. Badura-Skoda (Oxford, 1995).
The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the 21st Century, by Bruce Haynes (Oxford, 2007).

Singing in Style, by Martha Elliott (Yale, 2006).

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Memorization for Musicians

See p. 82-93 of The Musician's Way.

The Four Stages of Memorization. Powerful strategies, by Gerald Klickstein.

Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, by Brown, Roediger, McDaniel (Belknap, 2014).

Memorization: Psychological Data and Some Practical Tips, by Scott M. Smith.

“Memorising Music,” by Aaron Williamon, in Musical Performance: A Guide to Understanding, edited by John Rink, 113-126 (Cambridge, 2002).

“Memory,” by Aiello and Williamon, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, eds. Parncutt & McPherson, 167-181 (Oxford, 2002).

“Singing by Heart: Memorization Strategies for the Words and Music of Songs,” by Jane Ginsborg, in The Music Practitioner, ed. Jane Davidson, 149-160 (Ashgate, 2004).

“Performing from Memory,” by Chaffin, Logan, & Begosh, in The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, eds. Hallam, Cross, & Thaut (2008, p. 352-363).

The Value of Performing from Memory,” by Aaron Williamon, Psychology of Music, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 84-95 (1999). Abstract of important research article.

“Strategies for Memorizing Music,” by Jane Ginsborg, in Musical Excellence,
ed. Aaron Williamon, 123-141 (Oxford, 2004).

"Liszt: The Man Who Invented Stage Fright," by Steven Hough, The Guardian, (June 2011). Pros and cons of performing with or without a score.

Preview Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance, by Chaffin, Imreh, and Crawford (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002). Purchase from Amazon.com.

Read the Preface to Guide to Memorizing Music, by Alfred J. Goodrich (1906).

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Musical Collaboration

See p. 114-129 of The Musician's Way.

"Ten Tips for Collaborating Musicians" & "Collaborative Criticism"
Must-know info from The Musician's Way Blog.

"how to play in someone else's band," by Danny Barnes. Sage advice!

Team or Group? Discover 10 key distinctions using this article by Daniel Nase.
11 Ways to Build Trust within Your Team. Via Mike Henry & Lead Change Group.

"A Musician's Guide to Middle Management, or Leading a Band," by Cameron Mizell. Broadly applicable strategies and techniques.

"Eleven steps to fixing the problem that occurs when you work harder than everyone else in the band," by Bruce Warila.

From MindTools.com: Resolving team conflict. Leadership and teamwork tools. How good are your communication skills?

"The Secrets of Successful Collaboration," by Keppie Coutts. Insights into collective songwriting; broadly applicable.

"Two Is the Magic Number." The creative power of collaboration (Slate, 2010).

The Role of Chamber Music in Learning to Perform: A Case Study,” scholarly article by Burt-Perkins & Mills, in Music Performance Research, Vol. 2 (2008).

“Strategies for Ensemble Practice,” a chapter by Jane Davidson and Elaine King, in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance, edited by Aaron Williamon, 105-122 (Oxford, 2004).

Collaboration and the Study of Ensemble Rehearsal.” A paper by Elaine C. King published in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (2004).

The Chamber Music Network. Facilitates informal playing. 5000+ members!

The Art of Quartet Playing: The Guarneri Quartet in Conversation with David Blum (Cornell, 1987).

The Power of Positive Criticism, by H. Weisinger (Amacom, 2000).
Toxic Criticism, by Eric Maisel (McGraw Hill, 2006).

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