Part I of The Musician’s Way presents six chapters that outfit musicians to practice creatively and efficiently. The links, tips, and techniques below supplement those chapters.
Portable Digital Recorders for Musicians
Zoom H6. 6-track recorder with 24 bit, 96K capability.
Tascam DR-07 MKII. A less-expensive option for self-study recording.
HD camcorders at Amazon - great selection & low prices!
Scores and Sheet Music
Internet Music Score Library Project. A vast repository of 200K+ free scores.
The 4 Types of Music Editions by Gerald Klickstein. Avoid faulty editions.
Free downloadable scores from the Sibley Music Library at the Eastman School.
Free online scores & Special collections from the Indiana Univ. Music Library. Staatsbibliothek Berlin. Scores, autograph manuscripts, and much more.
WorldCat.org. Find scores, books, and recordings in libraries worldwide.
Juilliard Manuscript Collection. 140 documents for online viewing.
Historic American Sheet Music. From the Duke University Music Library.
American Sheet Music, 1820-1885. From the Library of Congress. 110,000 scores. African-American Sheet Music. Thousands of scores via Brown University.
Yiddish Sheet Music. From the collection at Brown University.
Sheet Music Plus. Extensive selection; low prices.
Music Practice, Theory, and History Resources and References
Articles about Deep Practice on The Musician's Way Blog.
Theta Music Trainer. Outstanding free ear training & music theory games.
Metronome Apps. A selected list from BulletproofMusician.com. BestMetronome.com. Free online metronome. Customizable beat rates.
"Rythmic Precision." How to use metronomes effectively, by Gerald Klickstein.
"It's Not How Much; It's How." By Robert A. Duke. Research pinpointing effective practice strategies. (JRME, 56/4, Jan. 2009)
Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, (Belknap, 2014).
Practice Perfect: 42 Rules for Getting Better at Getting Better, by Lemov, Woolway & Yezzi (Jossey-Bass, 2012). Strategies largely geared to educators.
“Practice,” by Nancy H. Barry and Susan Hallam, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, edited by Parncutt & McPherson, 151-166 (Oxford, 2002).
“Strategies for Individual Practice,” by Harald Jørgensen, 85-103; Mental Skills Training," by Connolly and Williamon, 221-246, in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance, ed. Aaron Williamon, (Oxford, 2004).
For improvisation resources, see Jazz.
Listening to Music
Deep Listening. An article on The Musician's Way Blog.
ArkivMusic.com. "The source for classical music."
PristineClassical.com. Historic recordings remastered by Andrew Rose.
Warm-Ups and Restorative Movements for Musicians
The Total Warm-up. Crucial strategies, via The Musician's Way Blog.
A Proper Warm-up Has Important Benefits, by physiologist Elizabeth Quinn.
Pre-playing warm-ups. Factsheet published by the British Association of Performing Arts Medicine. Please read the above article by Elizabeth Quinn and study the factsheet instructions before you try out these movements.
David Russell speaks about warming up, practicing, maintaining a repertoire of accessible pieces, and preserving the fun in music making. (Video)
“Qi Gong [Tai Chi] Exercises for Musicians.” Free video by Scott Lee.
PracticeSightReading.com. Generate rhythm exercises; multiple levels.
Eye Movement in Music Reading. A well-referenced article on Wikipedia.
“Sight-Reading,” by Lehmann & McArthur, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, eds. Parncutt & McPherson, 135-150 (Oxford, 2002).
“Strategies for Sight-reading and Improvising Music,” in Musical Excellence, edited by Aaron Williamon, 143-159 (Oxford, 2004).
Sight-reading/sight singing methods for instrumentalists and singers:
Solfèges des Solfèges, by A. Dannhäuser (3 vols.). Free download.
A New Approach to Sight Singing, by Berkowitz, Frontrier, & Kraft.
Rhythmical Articulation, by Pasquale Bona.
See p. 23-34 of The Musician's Way.
7 Essentials of Artistic Interpretation, by Gerald Klickstein
Videos: Search YouTube for videos of master musicians teaching interpretation. Use keywords such as "Pavarotti masterclass" or "violin master class."
Books about Musical Interpretation
The Musician's Way, by Gerald Klickstein (Oxford, 2009).
Note Grouping, by James Thurmond (Meredith, 1982).
Musical Interpretation, by Tobias Matthay (Schirmer, 1918). Free e-book.
Baroque Music: Style & Performance Handbook, by R. Donington (Norton 1982).
Interpreting Bach at the Keyboard, by P. Badura-Skoda (Oxford, 1995).
The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the 21st Century, by Bruce Haynes (Oxford, 2007).
Singing in Style, by Martha Elliott (Yale, 2006).
Memorization for Musicians
See p. 82-93 of The Musician's Way.
The Four Stages of Memorization. Powerful strategies, by Gerald Klickstein.
Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, by Brown, Roediger, McDaniel (Belknap, 2014).
Memorization: Psychological Data and Some Practical Tips, by Scott M. Smith.
"Liszt: The Man Who Invented Stage Fright," by Steven Hough, The Guardian, (June 2011). Pros and cons of performing with or without a score.
“Memorising Music,” by Aaron Williamon, in Musical Performance: A Guide to Understanding, edited by John Rink, 113-126 (Cambridge, 2002).
“Memory,” by Aiello and Williamon, in The Science & Psychology of Music Performance, eds. Parncutt & McPherson, 167-181 (Oxford, 2002).
“Singing by Heart: Memorization Strategies for the Words and Music of Songs,” by Jane Ginsborg, in The Music Practitioner, ed. Jane Davidson, 149-160 (Ashgate, 2004).
“Performing from Memory,” by Chaffin, Logan, & Begosh, in The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, eds. Hallam, Cross, & Thaut (2008, p. 352-363).
“The Value of Performing from Memory,” by Aaron Williamon, Psychology of Music, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 84-95 (1999). Abstract of important research article.
“Strategies for Memorizing Music,” by Jane Ginsborg, in Musical Excellence,
ed. Aaron Williamon, 123-141 (Oxford, 2004).
Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance, by Chaffin, Imreh, and Crawford (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002).
Read the Preface to Guide to Memorizing Music, by Alfred J. Goodrich (1906).
See p. 114-129 of The Musician's Way.
"how to play in someone else's band," by Danny Barnes. Sage advice!
"A Musician's Guide to Middle Management, or Leading a Band," by Cameron Mizell. Broadly applicable strategies and techniques.
"The Secrets of Successful Collaboration," by Keppie Coutts. Insights into collective songwriting; broadly applicable.
"Two Is the Magic Number." The creative power of collaboration (Slate, 2010).
“The Role of Chamber Music in Learning to Perform: A Case Study,” scholarly article by Burt-Perkins & Mills, in Music Performance Research, Vol. 2 (2008).
“Strategies for Ensemble Practice,” a chapter by Jane Davidson and Elaine King, in Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance, edited by Aaron Williamon, 105-122 (Oxford, 2004).
“Collaboration and the Study of Ensemble Rehearsal.” A paper by Elaine C. King published in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (2004).
The Chamber Music Network. Facilitates informal playing. 5000+ members!
The Art of Quartet Playing: The Guarneri Quartet in Conversation with David Blum (Cornell, 1987).